Despite the unprecedented development and growth of knowledge during the 20th century, the evolution of a peaceful 21st century will depend on our ability to address the challenges of prosperity, sustainability, and security. From these challenges, this collection seeks to devise a research agenda to help us to understand better the knowledge-based economy. Science and technology have acquired increasing importance in the development of contemporary societies. Governments, firms, universities, and research laboratories all take part in the process of building what has been conceptualized as national and/or regional science and technology systems. The actions of these key players and the interactions between them determine the impact of science and technology activities and, more generally, of innovation strategies on the well-being of nations. One of the most important challenges in maximizing this impact is to understand and manage the complex processes that underlie world-class science and technology research, commercialization, and management. In addition, knowledge integration in key subjects is required to enhance economic wealth, shared prosperity, and social and cultural enhancement. In this context, this volume also addresses such important topics as policy and strategies for global sustainable development.