James E. Jarrett is a Senior Research Scientist at the Bureau of Business Research, IC² Institute. His Ph.D. is from the University of Pennsylvania, and he received his undergraduate degree from Antioch College. He has studied also at the London School of Economics and the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan. His recent work at the Institute has concentrated on evaluation (training, projects, programs), metrics and benchmarking, and economic impacts. Prior to joining the University of Texas at Austin, he served as Director of Research at the Texas Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations. Previously, he conducted and supervised research for eight years at the national Council of State Governments, in Lexington, Kentucky, a non-partisan, non-profit research and service organization. Nearly all of Dr. Jarrett’s 80+ articles, reviews, reports, and book chapters have been developed for policy makers in state and local governments.