By-Product Synergy: A Strategy for Sustainable Development

By-product synergy (also known as “green twinning,” “industrial symbiosis,” and “zero waste/zero emissions/100% product emissions”) emphasizes the cooperation among diverse industries, agriculture, and communities that results in profitable conversion of by-products and wastes to resources promoting sustainability. This article examines the case study of Chaparral Steel Company of Midlothian, Texas.