Sustaining The Technopolis: High-Technology Development in Austin, Texas 1988-2012

Update and elaboration of the 1988 Journal of Business Venturing article "Creating the Technopolis: High-Technology Development in Austin, Texas" which emphasized the role of key influencers, institutions and networks that made possible Austin’s extraordinary technology-based growth. Elaborates the "Technopolis Wheel" framework to better reflect challenges and opportunities as well as review lessons learned during the past 25 years. While new aspects have emerged an unchanging, fundamental reality is that the "magic" of the Austin Model continues to be based on 1st- and 2nd-level influencers — key leaders and visionaries from academia, business, and government networking and working together to achieve targeted objectives.